Glossary

乙酰胆碱

控制记忆,注意力,睡眠,心率和肌肉活动等功能的关键神经递质。

动作电位

沿着轴突传播到神经元的末端的电荷,它触发神经递质的释放。当神经元激活并暂时逆转其内膜的电态从阴性逆转到阳性时,就会发生这种情况。

Addiction

Loss of control over drug intake or compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, despite adverse consequences.

Adenosine

A neurochemical that inhibits wakefulness, serving the purpose of slowing down cellular activity and diminishing arousal. Adenosine levels decrease during sleep.

Adrenal Gland

分泌激素的内分泌器官。外层(肾上腺皮质)分泌应力激素皮质醇。内部(肾上腺髓质)分泌肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素,以与“战斗或飞行”反应中的交感神经系统激活。

Alzheimer's Disease (AD)

这种神经退行性疾病是老年人痴呆症的主要原因,其特征是海马,脑皮质和其他大脑区域中神经元死亡。该疾病最早的症状包括健忘​​。时间或地点迷失方向;和集中度,计算,语言和判断力的困难。在最后阶段,个人无法自我保健,可能会卧床不起。

健忘症

记忆障碍通常是由脑损伤或疾病或某些麻醉药等药物引起的。失忆症的人可能无法回忆过去的事件,形成新的回忆或两者兼而有之。

杏仁核

A structure in the forebrain that is an important component of the limbic system and plays a central role in emotional learning, particularly within the context of fear.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

通常被称为Lou Gehrig病,ALS导致大脑和脊髓中的运动神经元分解,从而导致无法控制自愿运动(例如步行)。

Analgesic

A drug that relieves pain without causing a loss of consciousness.

焦虑

A state of heightened arousal characterized by intense worry.

Aphasia

Disturbance in language comprehension or production, often as a result of a stroke.

Apoptosis

Programmed cell death induced by specialized biochemical pathways, often serving a specific purpose in the development of an animal.

Arousal

A physiological state involving changes in the body and brain that motivate behavior and enable response to stimuli.

Astrocyte

中枢神经系统中的星形神经胶质细胞,可滋养神经元;调节突触的形成,维护和修剪;并有助于血脑屏障。

Attention

大脑的感觉处理的一种唤醒状态针对有限数量的刺激。自愿(内源性)注意是一个有意识地关注特定刺激的决定。非自愿(外源)注意力是计划外的关注环境变化,例如大声噪音或突然移动。

注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)

A condition characterized by excessively inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive behaviors.

Auditory Nerve

A branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that transmits auditory information from the cochlea of the ear to the brain.

自闭症谱系障碍(ASD)

A set of conditions characterized, in part, by impaired social communication and interaction, and narrow, obsessive interests or repetitive behaviors.

Autonomic Nervous System

A part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for regulating the activity of internal organs. It includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

轴突

The fiber-like extension of a neuron by which it sends information to target cells.

轴突末端

神经递质释放到靶细胞的轴突的末端。

Basal Ganglia

大脑深处的一组相互联系的结构在自愿运动,运动技能学习和习惯中发挥重要作用。这些结构包括尾状核,梭子鱼,伏隔核,苍白球和黑质。

Benzodiazepines

一个类的药物增强brai活动n’s primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), to produce sedative and anti-anxiety effects. Benzodiazepines are often prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and insomnia.

血脑屏障

A protective membrane composed of tightly packed endothelial cells lining the brain’s capillaries and highly specialized astrocytes, which controls the passage of certain molecules into and out of the brain.

Brain Waves

Oscillating patterns of brain activity that can be detected and recorded using electroencephalography (EEG).

脑衍生的神经营养因子(BDNF)

一种支持神经元生长和存活的神经营养肽。

Brainstem

The major route by which the forebrain sends information to and receives information from the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The brainstem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla, and it controls, among other things, respiration and the regulation of heart rhythms.

Broca的区域

额叶的一个区域(通常是左半球)控制语音生产。

Cell Body

也称为SOMA,是包含核(带有DNA)和细胞器的神经元的部分,但不含轴突或树突等投影。

Central Nervous System

The brain and spinal cord.

Cerebellum

A large structure located at the roof of the hindbrain that helps to control the coordination of movement by making connections to the pons, medulla, spinal cord, and thalamus. It also may be involved in aspects of motor learning.

大脑皮层

The wrinkled, outermost layer of the cerebrum consisting primarily of neuron cell bodies.

Cerebrum

与高阶功能相关的人类大脑的最大部分,例如思考,感知,计划和理解语言以及对自愿行为的控制。

Circadian Rhythms

行为或生理变化的循环持续约24小时。

Cochlea

A snail-shaped, fluid-filled organ of the inner ear responsible for converting sound into electrical potentials to produce an auditory sensation.

认知行为疗法

A form of counseling used to identify and change negative thought patterns that can contribute to anxiety and mood disorders.

计算神经科学

A field of neuroscience research that uses computer programs and algorithms to analyze information about the brain, and develops mathematical models to explain brain function.

Cones

A primary receptor cell for vision located in the retina. It is sensitive to color and is used primarily for daytime vision.

胼胝体

The large bundle of nerve fibers linking the left and right cerebral hemispheres.

Cortisol

由肾上腺皮质制造的激素。在人类中,皮质醇是在黎明之前最大的数量分泌的,为即将到来的活动准备了身体。

Cranial Nerves

十二对神经,可以在大脑的底部表面看到。这些神经中的一些传递感觉信息;有些人控制着脸部,头部和颈部肌肉的运动;其他人将信息传输到内部器官,以调节血压和心率等功能。

Critical Period

A period of heightened plasticity in brain development when certain experiences and sensory inputs are required for the formation of functional brain circuits.

Declarative Memory

Also called explicit memory, a type of memory that can be consciously retrieved. It includes memory of facts (semantic memory) and memory of personal experiences (episodic memory).

Default Mode Network

在安静的休息期间激活了大脑区域的集合。

Dementia

认知能力的下降会干扰日常功能。

Dendrite

A treelike extension of the neuron cell body. The dendrite is the primary site for receiving and integrating information from other neurons.

Depolarization

A change in a neuron’s membrane potential in which the cytoplasm becomes more positively charged. Neurons must depolarize beyond a certain threshold to generate an action potential.

Depression

A psychiatric disorder characterized by sadness, hopelessness, pessimism, loss of interest in life, reduced emotional wellbeing, and abnormalities in sleep, appetite, and energy level.

Dopamine

A catecholamine neurotransmitter present in three circuits of the brain: one that regulates movement; a second, thought to be important for cognition and emotion; and a third that regulates the endocrine system. Deficits of dopamine in the motor circuit are associated with Parkinson's disease. Abnormalities in the second circuit have been implicated in schizophrenia.

Down Syndrome

由于存在额外的染色体21的副本而导致的疾病。这种遗传异常与身体和发育特征有关,包括轻度至中度的智力障碍;低肌肉张力;以及先天性心脏缺陷,呼吸道问题和消化道阻塞的风险增加。

Dyslexia

尽管有正常的智力,教育和动力,但在阅读方面的明显困难还是很困难。

脑电图(EEG)

A technology used to record electrical activity of the human brain in response to a variety of stimuli and activities.

内啡肽

在大脑中产生的神经递质产生细胞和行为作用,例如吗啡。

Epilepsy

一种以重复癫痫发作为特征的疾病,是由各个大脑区域中大群神经元异常激发引起的。癫痫可以用多种类型的抗惊厥药治疗。

肾上腺素

肾上腺髓质和大脑专门部位释放的激素。在压力时期,肾上腺素(也称为肾上腺素)很快被释放到血液中。然后,它使身体处于一种普遍的唤醒状态,使其能够应对挑战。

Episodic Memory

一种声明性记忆的类型,主要包括对个人经验的记忆。

Estrogen

A female sex hormone produced primarily in the ovaries.

Excitation

A change in the electrical state of a neuron that is associated with an enhanced probability of action potentials.

Excitatory

A type of neuron (or neurotransmitter) that excites target neurons and increases the likelihood of their firing an action potential.

Executive Function

Higher-level processing that takes place in the brain’s prefrontal cortex. Executive function comprises impulse control, working memory, and mental flexibility.

Forebrain

发育中的大脑的一个区域,它继续成为脑半球和边缘系统的主要部分。

Fovea

小,与区域中心的视网膜where visual acuity is highest, due to a high density of cones.

脆弱的X综合征

A genetic condition resulting from a mutation in theFMR1gene that causes intellectual disability.

Frontal Lobe

大脑皮层的四个细分之一。额叶在控制运动以及行为的计划和协调中起作用。

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A technology that uses magnetic fields to detect activity in the brain by monitoring blood flow.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

An amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain whose primary function is to inhibit the firing of nerve cells.

Glia

滋养和支持神经元的专门细胞。

糖皮质激素激素

响应压力的激素会产生一系列影响。糖皮质激素的某些作用有助于介导压力反应,而其他动作则降低了对压力的主要反应并有助于重新建立稳态。

Glutamate

可激发神经元的氨基酸神经递质。谷氨酸刺激N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸(NMDA)和α-Amino-3-羟基-5-甲基甲唑-Oxazole-4-丙酸(AMPA)。AMPA受体与从学习和记忆到发育中的神经接触规范的活动有关。NMDA受体的刺激可能会促进有益的变化,而过度刺激可能是神经细胞损伤或神经外伤和中风死亡的原因。

Gray Matter

大脑的一部分是灰色的,因为它们主要由神经细胞体组成,而不是白色的骨髓神经纤维。它包括大脑皮层以及皮层结构。

Growth Cone

A distinctive structure at the growing end of most axons. It is the site where new material is added to the axon.

毛细胞

Sensory receptors in the cochlea that convert mechanical vibrations to electrical signals; they in turn excite the 30,000 fibers of the auditory nerve that carry the signals to the brainstem.

后脑

The most posterior part of the brain, comprising the pons, medulla, and cerebellum.

Hippocampus

内结构位于文胸in and considered an important part of the limbic system. One of the most studied areas of the brain, it is involved in learning, memory, and emotion.

组胺

A compound with multiple functions in the body. In the brain, histamine acts as a neurotransmitter to stimulate arousal. Local inflammatory responses in the body trigger the release of histamines from immune cells.

Homeostasis

The normal equilibrium of body function.

激素

Chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands to regulate the activity of target cells. They play a role in sexual development, calcium and bone metabolism, growth, and many other activities.

Huntington's Disease

A genetic disorder characterized by involuntary jerking movements of the limbs, torso, and facial muscles, often accompanied by mood swings, depression, irritability, slurred speech, and clumsiness.

超极化

A change in a neuron’s membrane potential in which the cytoplasm becomes more negatively charged and therefore less likely to fire an action potential.

下丘脑

A complex brain structure composed of many nuclei with various functions, including regulating the activities of internal organs, monitoring information from the autonomic nervous system, controlling the pituitary gland, and regulating sleep and appetite.

Inhibition

神经元的电态的变化与发射动作电位的概率降低有关。

Inhibitory

一种神经元(或神经递质),可防止靶神经元触发。

Insomnia

A sleep disorder in which people have trouble falling and/or staying asleep.

Interneuron

A neuron that exclusively signals another neuron.

Involuntary Movement

A movement that occurs without conscious control, such as a reflex.

Ion Channel

嵌入细胞膜中的蛋白质,使离子或其他小分子进入或离开细胞。

Limbic System

A group of structures deep within the brain involved in motivation and emotion. The hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus are all a part of the limbic system.

长期记忆

The final phase of memory, in which information storage may last from hours to a lifetime.

Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)

A long-lasting increase in synaptic strength resulting from an increased number of neurotransmitter receptors on the post-synaptic neuron.

磁共振成像(MRI)

一种使用磁场来创建体内器官和结构的高质量的三维图像的技术。该技术是无创的,不会使身体暴露于X射线或其他辐射。

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

A technique that can quantitatively measure the strength of activity in various regions of the brain at millisecond resolution.

Medulla

Also called the medulla oblongata, a structure of the brainstem that controls basic functions like swallowing, breathing, and heart rate.

Melatonin

A hormone produced in the pineal gland that regulates responses to light-dark cycles and induces sleep at night.

Membrane Potential

The voltage difference between the inside and outside of a neuron. The typical membrane potential of a neuron at rest is -70mV.

Mentalization

The ability to understand the mental states and thoughts of others and oneself

Microglia

神经胶质细胞在中枢神经系统的乐趣ction as resident immune cells.

Midbrain

The most anterior segment of the brainstem. With the pons and medulla, the midbrain is involved in many functions, including regulation of heart rate, respiration, pain perception, and movement.

Migration

The process whereby new neurons find their proper position in the brain.

Mitochondria

细胞内部的小圆柱细胞器通过将糖和氧气转化为特殊能量分子,称为三磷酸腺苷(ATP),从而为细胞提供能量。

Mood

A general state of mind and emotional disposition.

Motor Cortex

皮质中的一个专业区域涉及运动计划和执行。

Motor Neuron

将信息从中枢神经系统传递到肌肉的神经元。

电机单元

A functional unit made up of an alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it contains and controls, ranging from a few to a hundred or more.

Myelin

Compact fatty material that surrounds and insulates the axons of some neurons and accelerates the transmission of electrical signals.

Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder resulting from the loss of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus that causes pronounced sleepiness during the day.

神经生长因子(NGF)

一种物质,其作用是指导神经生长during embryonic development, especially in the peripheral nervous system. Nerve growth factor also probably helps to sustain neurons in adults.

Neurodegeneration

The progressive destruction and loss of neurons. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are examples of neurodegenerative diseases.

Neurogenesis

The production and growth of new nerve cells during development and, in select brain regions, throughout life.

Neuromodulator

A chemical messenger that alters the strength of a synapse by modifying the production and/or response to neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters, hormones, and immune molecules can all function as neuromodulators.

Neuron

A nerve cell specialized for the transmission of information and characterized by long, fibrous projections called axons and shorter, branchlike projections called dendrites.

Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers released by neurons at a synapse for the purpose of relaying information to other cells.

神经递质受体

Proteins embedded in the postsynaptic cell membrane that bind neurotransmitters to alter the cell’s excitability.

伤害感受器

Nerve endings that signal the sensation of pain.

Nodes of Ranvier

轴突的髓鞘中的无髓缝间隙沿着电脉冲传播。

Non-Declarative Memory

Also called implicit or procedural memory, a type of long-term memory that is stored and retrieved without conscious effort.

Norepinephrine

A catecholamine neurotransmitter produced both in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. Norepinephrine is involved in arousal and sleep regulation, mood, and blood pressure.

伏隔核

A region at the base of the forebrain that is a part of the basal ganglia and is important in motivation and reward.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

一种以无法控制的,反复出现的思想(痴迷)和重复行为(强迫)为特征的焦虑症,试图减轻痴迷。

Occipital Lobes

大脑皮层的四个细分之一。枕叶在处理视觉信息中起作用。

Olfactory Bulbs

Round, knoblike structures of the brain responsible for processing the sense of smell. Specialized olfactory receptor cells are located in a small patch of mucous membrane lining the roof of the nose. Axons of these sensory cells pass through perforations in the overlying bone and enter two elongated olfactory bulbs lying on top of the bone.

少突胶质细胞

中枢神经系统中形成髓磷脂的一种神经胶质细胞。

Opioids

与大脑中阿片类药物结合的物质以减轻疼痛。内啡肽是大脑中产生的一种内源性阿片类药物。天然和合成的阿片类药物(例如吗啡和可待因)可以处方以治疗疼痛。

Optic Chiasm

视神经相遇的大脑中的位置,一些轴突在具有双眼视力的动物中越过相反的(对侧)半球。

Optic Nerve

将信息从视网膜传输到大脑的神经元束。

Orexin

A hormone produced in the hypothalamus that stimulates arousal.

Oxytocin

下丘脑中产生的激素并由垂体释放,该激素从乳腺中释放出来并刺激子宫收缩。它还参与了爱情和社会联系。

Pain

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience often signaling tissue damage, or the potential for damage.

麻痹

The loss of muscle function in all or part of the body, usually due to nerve damage.

Parasympathetic Branch

A branch of the autonomic nervous system concerned with the conservation of the body's energy and resources during relaxed states.

顶叶

大脑皮层的四个细分之一。The parietal lobe plays a role in sensory processes, attention, and language.

Parkinson's Disease (PD)

A movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain. Symptoms include slowness of movement, muscular rigidity, and walking and balance impairment.

外周神经系统

大脑和脊髓外的神经。

Photoreceptors

A nerve ending, cell, or group of cells specialized to sense or receive light.

Pineal Gland

大脑中产生褪黑激素的小内分泌腺。

Pituitary Gland

内分泌器官与下丘脑密切相关。在人类中,垂体由两个裂片组成,并分泌几种不同的激素,这些激素调节了整个体内其他内分泌器官的活性。

Plasticity

The ability of the brain to modify its neural connections to adapt to challenges in the environment.

Pons

A part of the hindbrain that, with other brain structures, controls respiration and regulates heart rhythms. The pons is a major route by which the forebrain sends information to and receives information from the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

一种基于在正电子(带正电荷颗粒)中发出的放射性检测的方法测量大脑功能的方法。然后,计算机根据不同大脑区域发射的辐射量构建了血流变化的三维图像。大脑活动越多,创建的图片就越生动。

Postsynaptic Neuron

In a synapse, the neuron receiving chemical messages.

前额叶皮层(PFC)

A region at the front of the frontal lobe involved in the brain’s higher-level functions such as planning, decision-making, working memory, and inhibitory control.

突触前神经元

In a synapse, the neuron transmitting chemical messages to a target neuron.

Prostaglandins

Small lipid molecules that enhance nociceptor sensitivity to increase pain and prevent further tissue damage.

快速眼动(REM)睡眠

The part of the sleep cycle when active dreaming takes place. It is characterized by neocortical EEG waves similar to those observed during waking. This state is accompanied by paralysis of the body's muscles; only the muscles that allow breathing and control eye movements remain active.

反射

Considered the simplest and most fundamental movements, they are relatively fixed, automatic muscle responses to particular stimuli, such as the slight extension of the leg when a physician taps the knee with a small rubber hammer.

Retina

A multilayered sensory tissue that lines the back of the eye and contains the receptor cells to detect light.

Reuptake

释放的神经递质被吸收以供以后再利用的过程。

A sensory neuron located in the periphery of the retina. The rod is sensitive to light of low intensity and is specialized for nighttime vision.

Saltatory Conduction

The process by which action potentials “jump” along the unmyelinated nodes of Ranvier, speeding electrical transmission.

精神分裂症

一种以精神病为特征(例如幻觉和妄想),扁平情绪和认知功能受损的慢性疾病。

Schwann Cell

形成髓磷脂的周围神经系统中的一种神经胶质细胞。

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin, increasing its availability in the synapse. SSRIs are used to treat depression and other disorders.

Semantic Memory

A type of declarative memory that involves memory of facts.

Serotonin

A monoamine neurotransmitter believed to play many roles, including but not limited to temperature regulation, sensory perception, and the onset of sleep. Neurons using serotonin as a transmitter are found in the brain and gut. Several antidepressant drugs are targeted to brain serotonin systems.

Short-Term Memory

A phase of memory in which a limited amount of information may be held for several seconds or minutes.

Somatosensory Cortex

A region of the parietal lobe responsible for processing touch and pain signals from the body.

Spinal Cord

A bundle of nerve fibers running through the vertebral column that primarily functions to facilitate communication between the brain and the rest of the body.

干细胞

Unspecialized cells that renew themselves for long periods through cell division.

Stress

任何威胁稳态的外部刺激。许多压力会对身体产生负面影响,但某些类型的压力可能会有所帮助。

纹状体

大脑深处的一群神经元分为腹侧和背区域。腹侧纹状体由伏隔核和嗅觉结节组成,而背纹状体由尾状和壳壳组成。纹状体是基底神经节的一部分,参与奖励处理。

Stroke

大脑血液供应的块。中风可能是由血管,血管或血管压力的破裂引起的(可能是肿瘤引起的)。没有氧气,受影响区域的神经元死亡,由这些细胞控制的身体部分无法正常工作。中风会导致意识和死亡的丧失。

Substantia Nigra

A region of the midbrain involved in movement and reward. Parkinson’s disease destroys the dopamine-producing neurons in this region.

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)

下丘脑中的一小组神经细胞表达时钟蛋白,经过大约24小时的生化周期。这为活动,睡眠,激素释放和其他身体功能的每日周期设定了速度。

Sympathetic Branch

A branch of the autonomic nervous system responsible for mobilizing the body's energy and resources during times of stress and arousal.

Synapse

两个神经元之间的物理间隙,作为信息位点从一个神经元转移到另一个神经元的位点。

突触可塑性

The ability of synapses to alter their strength by changing their size, shape, number of receptors, and amount of neurotransmitter released.

Synaptic Pruning

The elimination of weak or non-functioning synapses to fine-tune neural circuitry.

Taste Buds

在舌头上发现的感官器官。

Temporal Lobes

One of the four major subdivisions of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. The temporal lobe functions in auditory perception, speech, and complex visual perceptions.

Testosterone

A sex hormone produced primarily in the testes but also in lower amounts in the adrenal cortex and ovaries.

Thalamus

A structure consisting of two egg-shaped masses of nerve tissue, each about the size of a walnut, deep within the brain. The key relay station for sensory information flowing into the brain, the thalamus filters out information of particular importance from the mass of signals entering the brain.

Trophic Factors

Small proteins in the nervous system that are necessary for the development, function, and survival of specific groups of neurons.

Vagus Nerve

The tenth cranial nerve, it transmits signals from the brain to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.

Voluntary Movement

A motor action that is consciously planned and executed.

Wernicke's Area

A region in the temporal lobe responsible for comprehension of language.

White Matter

The part of the brain that contains myelinated nerve fibers. The white matter gets its color from myelin, the insulation covering nerve fibers.

工作记忆

A temporary type of declarative memory, the ability to keep a piece of information “in mind.” It is limited to a small amount of data and, unless transferred to long-term memory, decays within a few seconds.

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