Loss of control over drug intake or compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, despite adverse consequences.
A neurochemical that inhibits wakefulness, serving the purpose of slowing down cellular activity and diminishing arousal. Adenosine levels decrease during sleep.
Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
A structure in the forebrain that is an important component of the limbic system and plays a central role in emotional learning, particularly within the context of fear.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
A drug that relieves pain without causing a loss of consciousness.
A state of heightened arousal characterized by intense worry.
Disturbance in language comprehension or production, often as a result of a stroke.
Programmed cell death induced by specialized biochemical pathways, often serving a specific purpose in the development of an animal.
A physiological state involving changes in the body and brain that motivate behavior and enable response to stimuli.
A condition characterized by excessively inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive behaviors.
A branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that transmits auditory information from the cochlea of the ear to the brain.
A set of conditions characterized, in part, by impaired social communication and interaction, and narrow, obsessive interests or repetitive behaviors.
Autonomic Nervous System
A part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for regulating the activity of internal organs. It includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
The fiber-like extension of a neuron by which it sends information to target cells.
一个类的药物增强brai活动n’s primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), to produce sedative and anti-anxiety effects. Benzodiazepines are often prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and insomnia.
A protective membrane composed of tightly packed endothelial cells lining the brain’s capillaries and highly specialized astrocytes, which controls the passage of certain molecules into and out of the brain.
Oscillating patterns of brain activity that can be detected and recorded using electroencephalography (EEG).
The major route by which the forebrain sends information to and receives information from the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The brainstem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla, and it controls, among other things, respiration and the regulation of heart rhythms.
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord.
A large structure located at the roof of the hindbrain that helps to control the coordination of movement by making connections to the pons, medulla, spinal cord, and thalamus. It also may be involved in aspects of motor learning.
The wrinkled, outermost layer of the cerebrum consisting primarily of neuron cell bodies.
A snail-shaped, fluid-filled organ of the inner ear responsible for converting sound into electrical potentials to produce an auditory sensation.
A form of counseling used to identify and change negative thought patterns that can contribute to anxiety and mood disorders.
A field of neuroscience research that uses computer programs and algorithms to analyze information about the brain, and develops mathematical models to explain brain function.
A primary receptor cell for vision located in the retina. It is sensitive to color and is used primarily for daytime vision.
The large bundle of nerve fibers linking the left and right cerebral hemispheres.
A period of heightened plasticity in brain development when certain experiences and sensory inputs are required for the formation of functional brain circuits.
Also called explicit memory, a type of memory that can be consciously retrieved. It includes memory of facts (semantic memory) and memory of personal experiences (episodic memory).
Default Mode Network
A treelike extension of the neuron cell body. The dendrite is the primary site for receiving and integrating information from other neurons.
A change in a neuron’s membrane potential in which the cytoplasm becomes more positively charged. Neurons must depolarize beyond a certain threshold to generate an action potential.
A psychiatric disorder characterized by sadness, hopelessness, pessimism, loss of interest in life, reduced emotional wellbeing, and abnormalities in sleep, appetite, and energy level.
A catecholamine neurotransmitter present in three circuits of the brain: one that regulates movement; a second, thought to be important for cognition and emotion; and a third that regulates the endocrine system. Deficits of dopamine in the motor circuit are associated with Parkinson's disease. Abnormalities in the second circuit have been implicated in schizophrenia.
A technology used to record electrical activity of the human brain in response to a variety of stimuli and activities.
A female sex hormone produced primarily in the ovaries.
A change in the electrical state of a neuron that is associated with an enhanced probability of action potentials.
A type of neuron (or neurotransmitter) that excites target neurons and increases the likelihood of their firing an action potential.
Higher-level processing that takes place in the brain’s prefrontal cortex. Executive function comprises impulse control, working memory, and mental flexibility.
小,与区域中心的视网膜where visual acuity is highest, due to a high density of cones.
A genetic condition resulting from a mutation in theFMR1gene that causes intellectual disability.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
A technology that uses magnetic fields to detect activity in the brain by monitoring blood flow.
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
An amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain whose primary function is to inhibit the firing of nerve cells.
A distinctive structure at the growing end of most axons. It is the site where new material is added to the axon.
Sensory receptors in the cochlea that convert mechanical vibrations to electrical signals; they in turn excite the 30,000 fibers of the auditory nerve that carry the signals to the brainstem.
The most posterior part of the brain, comprising the pons, medulla, and cerebellum.
内结构位于文胸in and considered an important part of the limbic system. One of the most studied areas of the brain, it is involved in learning, memory, and emotion.
A compound with multiple functions in the body. In the brain, histamine acts as a neurotransmitter to stimulate arousal. Local inflammatory responses in the body trigger the release of histamines from immune cells.
The normal equilibrium of body function.
Chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands to regulate the activity of target cells. They play a role in sexual development, calcium and bone metabolism, growth, and many other activities.
A genetic disorder characterized by involuntary jerking movements of the limbs, torso, and facial muscles, often accompanied by mood swings, depression, irritability, slurred speech, and clumsiness.
A change in a neuron’s membrane potential in which the cytoplasm becomes more negatively charged and therefore less likely to fire an action potential.
A complex brain structure composed of many nuclei with various functions, including regulating the activities of internal organs, monitoring information from the autonomic nervous system, controlling the pituitary gland, and regulating sleep and appetite.
A sleep disorder in which people have trouble falling and/or staying asleep.
A neuron that exclusively signals another neuron.
A movement that occurs without conscious control, such as a reflex.
A group of structures deep within the brain involved in motivation and emotion. The hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, and hypothalamus are all a part of the limbic system.
The final phase of memory, in which information storage may last from hours to a lifetime.
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP)
A long-lasting increase in synaptic strength resulting from an increased number of neurotransmitter receptors on the post-synaptic neuron.
A technique that can quantitatively measure the strength of activity in various regions of the brain at millisecond resolution.
Also called the medulla oblongata, a structure of the brainstem that controls basic functions like swallowing, breathing, and heart rate.
A hormone produced in the pineal gland that regulates responses to light-dark cycles and induces sleep at night.
The voltage difference between the inside and outside of a neuron. The typical membrane potential of a neuron at rest is -70mV.
The ability to understand the mental states and thoughts of others and oneself。
神经胶质细胞在中枢神经系统的乐趣ction as resident immune cells.
The most anterior segment of the brainstem. With the pons and medulla, the midbrain is involved in many functions, including regulation of heart rate, respiration, pain perception, and movement.
The process whereby new neurons find their proper position in the brain.
A general state of mind and emotional disposition.
A functional unit made up of an alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it contains and controls, ranging from a few to a hundred or more.
Compact fatty material that surrounds and insulates the axons of some neurons and accelerates the transmission of electrical signals.
A sleep disorder resulting from the loss of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus that causes pronounced sleepiness during the day.
一种物质,其作用是指导神经生长during embryonic development, especially in the peripheral nervous system. Nerve growth factor also probably helps to sustain neurons in adults.
The progressive destruction and loss of neurons. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are examples of neurodegenerative diseases.
The production and growth of new nerve cells during development and, in select brain regions, throughout life.
A chemical messenger that alters the strength of a synapse by modifying the production and/or response to neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters, hormones, and immune molecules can all function as neuromodulators.
A nerve cell specialized for the transmission of information and characterized by long, fibrous projections called axons and shorter, branchlike projections called dendrites.
Chemical messengers released by neurons at a synapse for the purpose of relaying information to other cells.
Proteins embedded in the postsynaptic cell membrane that bind neurotransmitters to alter the cell’s excitability.
Nerve endings that signal the sensation of pain.
Nodes of Ranvier
Also called implicit or procedural memory, a type of long-term memory that is stored and retrieved without conscious effort.
A catecholamine neurotransmitter produced both in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. Norepinephrine is involved in arousal and sleep regulation, mood, and blood pressure.
A region at the base of the forebrain that is a part of the basal ganglia and is important in motivation and reward.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Round, knoblike structures of the brain responsible for processing the sense of smell. Specialized olfactory receptor cells are located in a small patch of mucous membrane lining the roof of the nose. Axons of these sensory cells pass through perforations in the overlying bone and enter two elongated olfactory bulbs lying on top of the bone.
A hormone produced in the hypothalamus that stimulates arousal.
An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience often signaling tissue damage, or the potential for damage.
The loss of muscle function in all or part of the body, usually due to nerve damage.
A branch of the autonomic nervous system concerned with the conservation of the body's energy and resources during relaxed states.
大脑皮层的四个细分之一。The parietal lobe plays a role in sensory processes, attention, and language.
Parkinson's Disease (PD)
A movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain. Symptoms include slowness of movement, muscular rigidity, and walking and balance impairment.
A nerve ending, cell, or group of cells specialized to sense or receive light.
The ability of the brain to modify its neural connections to adapt to challenges in the environment.
A part of the hindbrain that, with other brain structures, controls respiration and regulates heart rhythms. The pons is a major route by which the forebrain sends information to and receives information from the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
In a synapse, the neuron receiving chemical messages.
A region at the front of the frontal lobe involved in the brain’s higher-level functions such as planning, decision-making, working memory, and inhibitory control.
In a synapse, the neuron transmitting chemical messages to a target neuron.
Small lipid molecules that enhance nociceptor sensitivity to increase pain and prevent further tissue damage.
The part of the sleep cycle when active dreaming takes place. It is characterized by neocortical EEG waves similar to those observed during waking. This state is accompanied by paralysis of the body's muscles; only the muscles that allow breathing and control eye movements remain active.
Considered the simplest and most fundamental movements, they are relatively fixed, automatic muscle responses to particular stimuli, such as the slight extension of the leg when a physician taps the knee with a small rubber hammer.
A multilayered sensory tissue that lines the back of the eye and contains the receptor cells to detect light.
A sensory neuron located in the periphery of the retina. The rod is sensitive to light of low intensity and is specialized for nighttime vision.
The process by which action potentials “jump” along the unmyelinated nodes of Ranvier, speeding electrical transmission.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin, increasing its availability in the synapse. SSRIs are used to treat depression and other disorders.
A type of declarative memory that involves memory of facts.
A monoamine neurotransmitter believed to play many roles, including but not limited to temperature regulation, sensory perception, and the onset of sleep. Neurons using serotonin as a transmitter are found in the brain and gut. Several antidepressant drugs are targeted to brain serotonin systems.
A phase of memory in which a limited amount of information may be held for several seconds or minutes.
A region of the parietal lobe responsible for processing touch and pain signals from the body.
A bundle of nerve fibers running through the vertebral column that primarily functions to facilitate communication between the brain and the rest of the body.
Unspecialized cells that renew themselves for long periods through cell division.
A region of the midbrain involved in movement and reward. Parkinson’s disease destroys the dopamine-producing neurons in this region.
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
A branch of the autonomic nervous system responsible for mobilizing the body's energy and resources during times of stress and arousal.
The ability of synapses to alter their strength by changing their size, shape, number of receptors, and amount of neurotransmitter released.
The elimination of weak or non-functioning synapses to fine-tune neural circuitry.
One of the four major subdivisions of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. The temporal lobe functions in auditory perception, speech, and complex visual perceptions.
A sex hormone produced primarily in the testes but also in lower amounts in the adrenal cortex and ovaries.
A structure consisting of two egg-shaped masses of nerve tissue, each about the size of a walnut, deep within the brain. The key relay station for sensory information flowing into the brain, the thalamus filters out information of particular importance from the mass of signals entering the brain.
Small proteins in the nervous system that are necessary for the development, function, and survival of specific groups of neurons.
The tenth cranial nerve, it transmits signals from the brain to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
A motor action that is consciously planned and executed.
A region in the temporal lobe responsible for comprehension of language.
The part of the brain that contains myelinated nerve fibers. The white matter gets its color from myelin, the insulation covering nerve fibers.
A temporary type of declarative memory, the ability to keep a piece of information “in mind.” It is limited to a small amount of data and, unless transferred to long-term memory, decays within a few seconds.